Name: Engle v. Vitale1.370 US 421(1962)(Abolishing state prayers in school because it is unconstitutional to recite a prayer in school).

Summary: This law was passed after children were forced to recite a prayer in New Hyde Park New York ; parents said it was against their religious beliefs. It was passed because the fourteenth amendment states the “respecting an establishment of religion,” stating that state officials cannot compose an official state prayer and require it be recited in public schools even if the child can be silent or is excused from the room.

Key manifestations: State laws could not have a state made prayer all would have to say. It lead to a tolerance towards those of different religions.
This lead to a tolerance of other religions because it showed that people who do not believe in the same thing as you still have a say in what goes on in the United States.

Key Personnel: When Engle first went against the school district he lost many of the court cases.The lower courts preferred the right of New York to use the prayer because the student did not have to participate in the prayer. Vitale said that the school did not mandate a religion by having a prayer to children who wanted to say it. Vitale said that it was correct because students were not forced to say it. Vitale also said that religion was part of the government too. Vitale said that the government would be getting involved and there would not be a separation of church and state. Engel(against the decision) Regents of the State of New York . Court found the Regents prayer unconstitutional. Justice Hugo Black wrote the opinion for the 6-1 majority, for the court decision.

Why/How is it a benchmark: It is a benchmark because it has lead to religious tolerance in many other ways such as allowing Muslims to wear burkes and not making them take them off. It has shown that the state can not force someone to recite something against their religious views.The key manifestations show how this lead to religious tolerance.
Links: http://www.infoplease.com/us/supreme-court/cases/ar10.htmlhttp://www.wakeupamerica.org/html/1962Supreme.html